The gable is a natural continuation of the end wall of the building.
From ancient times of ancient Greece and Rome, the pediment began to be used as an additional independent architectural element that adorns the building. In this capacity, it was widely used in palace and temple buildings, small architectural forms - rotundas, triumphal arches, etc. Coats of arms, wreaths, emblems, cornucopias, allegorical figures of Muses or Geniuses of fame were placed in his field.
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From a constructive point of view, the gable is a wall of the attic, protecting its inner space from atmospheric influences - wind, dust, rain and snow precipitation. This part of the facade can be solid or in it arrange a dormer window - a round or semi-circular shape.A dormer window is required to equalize the pressure inside the attic and outside the building. The dormer window should open, especially in summer. A wooden house without this device will constantly creak and deform. In the brick - due to the rigidity of the structures, cracks may arise in them, which can very easily turn into accidental defects, requiring considerable investment of funds for repair.
From a constructive point of view, this detail is the wall of the attic
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House with attic or mezzanine
If an attic or mezzanine is located in the attic space, in the frontal part of the attic one or several ordinary rectangular windows and sometimes a small console balcony are arranged. The gable is part of the roof system of the building. Usually, subrafter longitudinal beams-girders and ridge beams rest on it.
When the house is located in an area with strong winds, and the height is high enough, it makes sense to provide internal struts made of wood or metal when roofing. They will support the construction and protect against collapse.. When a house has one or two longitudinal internal capital walls, in the places of their junction to external fences, it is possible to install half-timbered elements resting on them (walls) - rectangular (pilasters) or inclined (buttress) on the inside.
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Material for production
In a brick or wooden house with an unintended additional exterior finish, it will be better if the material of the building envelope coincides with the material of the gable. That is, in a brick unplastered house, it should be brick, and in a wooden frame - from logs, in a plastered one - plastered. In this case, the thickness may differ from the thickness of the walls in a smaller direction.BoardYou should not get involved in the use of not the same materials for this part of the wall and enclosing structures. If it was not so intentionally conceived by the architect or designer, in most cases this may indicate bad taste.
Beautiful design of a country house
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Often the project of the house provides for additional finishing of the facades, often combined with insulation, and this can be:
- simple or decorative plaster;
- facing ceramic, artificial or tiles made of natural stone;
- plating with plastic, fiber cement, other types of siding or panels;
- use of the so-called ventilated facade. This allows the outside air to pass freely under the cladding and remove excess moisture. And also make the building less cold in summer and cooler in winter.
The building of the wooden house
In this case, the material and methods of manufacture may differ from how the walls are arranged. For example, walls can be made of bricks, and gables can be made of foam concrete or wooden-panel blocks. After a homogeneous finish facades and frontal parts, they may look like built in the same style.
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The use of lightweight materials for the manufacture of gables will help reduce the load on the foundation and make it less massive, which will save. For the manufacture of lightweight structures may be suitable:
- edged board 3… 5 cm thick;
- blocks of foam or aerated;
- cinder block;
- claydite blocks;
- the volume wooden or metal framework revetted from the inside and outside of the plastic panels with the thermal insulation put between them.
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When the attic space is adapted to accommodate an attic or mezzanine, and the frontal wall thickness is less than the thickness of the front walls, this part of the house should be insulated. Heat protection is best done from the outside. There are two reasons for this:
- preservation of the useful volume of the attic;
- inclusion of the gable wall in the thermal protection system.
Red brick trim
Insulation should be protected from mechanical damage. Therefore, thermal insulation is usually combined with lining or cladding. It is performed using a wooden or metal frame in the form of rails, fixed with screws on the wall with a certain pitch and spacing. Cells that are formed between the elements of the framework of the framework, before lining, fill with mats of mineral wool or foam sheets.Before laying the insulation is wrapped with a film with waterproofing and water-repellent properties. At the same time, it passes the vapor migrating through the walls, which is formed from the vital activity of people and the differences in the internal and external temperature. A vapor-permeable film or membrane does not allow thermal insulation to be saturated with water condensate and, as a result, to lose its protective properties.
To prevent soaking, a roofing overhang is arranged when covering. He is leaning through the crate on the fillets - curly boards that protrude beyond the facade to a distance of 40 centimeters or more.
The tree never goes out of fashion
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The device window or door openings
Window or doorways can be arranged by extending the dormer window to the required area for a comfortable stay in the room. If the pediment is solid or "deaf", the openings are punched in the standard way. For a brick, a horizontal stratum is cut at the level of the upper part of the opening, into which a concrete or metal bridge is fastened and secured. Then, the underlying part of the masonry is removed to install window or door fill.
Beautiful design of the house with gable
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Decorative finish gables
Most houses have a pronounced eaves, that is, the broadening of the outer wall at the level of the attic floor. It is sometimes additionally decorated with running moldings - rods, cuts, etc. It is also recommended to do the same and the so-called frontal boards, that is, the elements that complete the inclined or curved parts of the gable, so that its limiting details are the same. The end wall, turning into the attic fence with the absence of the eaves, is called a gable.return to menu ↑
A brick gable or gable can be decorated with a pattern of turned brick, for example, in the form of imitation brackets to support the eaves slab.These protruding and falling alternating parts are called - crackers. Brickwork every 3 ... 4 rows is reinforced with wire mesh with d = 4 ... 6 mm.
House in the German style
When the house and the pediment are plastered, the color of their planes most often coincides in color, but sometimes designers recommend contrasting colors to create the color scheme of the structure.return to menu ↑
When decorating wooden houses, they are sometimes sheathed with clapboard, i.e. with a pin of 1 ... 1. 5 cm in thickness with a pin-pin. The lining is performed vertically, horizontally or obliquely - with a herringbone or other type of patterns.. Curtain rods and front boards of pediments, as well as trim and window sandrik often decorated with carvings. And on the skate install a weather vane with a flag or silhouette of a totem animal.
Large panoramic windows, let in a lot of light.
Wood is a combustible material, as well as organic matter, with low resistance to biological pollution. Therefore, before using wood elements and structures must be properly protected.For biological protection from fungus, decay, mold, grinder beetles and bark beetles, wood is treated with antiseptics in a water-soluble form or introduced into the lacquer primer. To reduce the risk of fire use flame retardants. These are substances that increase the temperature of the flash, as well as during heating, emitting substances that prevent burning.
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Finishing with decking or asbestos cement slate
If the building is not a barn, a place to house animals (crib, pigsty, poultry house), garage or workshop. In this case, metal sheeting, undulating and flat asbestos-cement sheets are not recommended for facing frontal and other vertical parts. Building materials that are good for the manufacture of fences and hedges, in a residential building everywhere, except for the roof look inappropriate.
Wooden gablereturn to menu ↑ return to menu ↑
If the owner of the house has the necessary financial resources and wants to decorate his house using classical architectural orders and styles, you can choose any suitable configuration of the gable. It, for example, can be made open, that is, without bringing the frontal boards to the ridge to complete them with volutes - curling snails.
Between them set a rectangular or round pedestal stand, on which, in turn, put a flowerpot, urn, and sometimes a bust of the owner or a particularly revered ancestor. A dormer window in the gable field can be decorated with a stucco wreath with a floral ornament. Below, under the eaves, in a special rectangular field, sometimes a Latin saying or motto is placed in the Latin language that suits the owner in spirit or in mood.
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Fronton - do it yourself
Making a pediment with your own hands is no more difficult than the construction of other protecting vertical parts of the building. But this is only in the case when there is a certain construction experience and qualification. In the absence of them, it is better to start self-training in construction with the construction of a shed or garage.
Still need to remember the course of school Euclidean geometry. This will be required in order to correctly mark at least two identical parts of a house of a triangular or more complex shape. They are usually separated from one another at a distance of 10 meters or more. And all this needs to be done with the help of a cord, plumb, bubble and water levels. Otherwise, if there are errors in the marking, the curve will be shifted in one direction, the roof with a ridge skewed in the vertical and horizontal plane.
In classic styleBoardIt is not recommended to work on the device gables alone. It is better to invite one or two attendants. In this capacity, adult relatives of friends or neighbors can be used.
If there are difficulties with the markup, call the surveyor. He, having geodetic instruments - a level and a theodolite and others - will be able to correctly perform the breakdown, but he will ask for some money.return to menu ↑ return to menu ↑
Advantages and disadvantages
Brick gable. The most reliable method of building robust and durable fences. The disadvantages are virtually absent.
Wooden gable. With all its advantages - ease of installation and processing, environmental properties (does not emit substances harmful to humans and fumes) has the disadvantage of increased inflammability and fire hazard.
Gable of profiled sheeting. Disadvantages - unpresentable appearance, the risk of corrosion in places of attachment.
Gables lined with plastic panels or siding. Advantages - copes well with protective properties. Disadvantages - warping, color burnout, low resistance to solar ultraviolet.return to menu ↑